Cubism is a 20th century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Picasso and Braque. It started between 1907 and 1911.
In Cubism objects are depicted from many viewpoints after they’ve been analyzed and reassembled in an abstract manner, surfaces are broken up, objects and background space interpenetrate. This creates the typical shallow ambiguous space without real depth. Cubism looks at the world in a detached, realistic way. In Cubism the emphasis is on form as oppose to the emphasis on color of (Neo/Post)Impressionism movements.
Cubism finds its roots in African, Micronesian and Native American art and its stark powers and simplicity of style. This art was first discovered by the European elite during the late 19th and early 20th century. Cubism has also roots in two distinct tendencies in Cezanne’s later work: breaking the paint surface into small facets in order to emphasis the plural viewpoint through binocular vision and simplification of natural forms into simple geometrical shapes. Cubists extended the concept by showing all the surfaces of an object on a single picture plane as if they were all visible at the same time. It’s like they tried to put the fourth dimension into art, echoing Einstein’s relativity of time – special relativity 1905, general relativity 1916. This means Cubism represents a revolution in the way objects could be visualized.
Notable artists: Picasso, Braque, Leger, Gris, Metzinger, Delaunay, Le Fauconnier, Duchamp